A quartz clock is a clock that uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time. This crystal oscillator creates a signal with very precise frequency, so that quartz clocks are at least an order of magnitude more accurate than mechanical clocks.
A mechanical watch is a watch that uses a non-electric/electronic mechanism to measure the passage of time. It is driven by a spring (called a mainspring) which must be wound periodically, and which releases the energy to activate the balance wheel, which oscillates back and forth thanks to the Balance spring at a constant rate, transmitting the impulse through the lever escapement to the gear train, that divides the impulse into hours, minutes and seconds, thus making a ‘ticking’ sound when operating. Mechanical watches evolved in Europe in the 1600s from spring powered clocks, which appeared in the 1400s.
Mechanical watches are not as accurate as modern quartz watches and are generally more expensive. They are now worn more for their aesthetic and emotional attributes, as a piece of jewellery and as a statement of one’s personality, than for their timekeeping ability. Mechanical movements can be repaired from scratch over centuries by able watchmakers.
(Kinetic )Automatic quartz is a collective term describing watch movements that combine a self-winding rotor mechanism (as used in automatic mechanical watches) to generate electricity with a piezoelectric quartz crystal as its timing element. Such movements aim to provide the advantages of quartz without the environmental impact of batteries. Seiko watches employ this technique.
A solar-powered watch or light-powered watch is a watch that is powered entirely or partly by a solar cell.
Water Resistant is a common mark stamped on the back of wrist watches to indicate how well a watch is sealed against ingress of water. It is usually accompanied by an indication of the static test pressure that a sample of newly manufactured watches was exposed to in a leakage test. The test pressure can be indicated either directly in bars, or (more commonly) as an equivalent water depth in meters (in the United States sometimes also in feet).
An indication of the test pressure in terms of water depth does not mean a water resistant watch was designed for repeated long term use in such water depths. For example, a water resistant watch marked at 30 meters depth cannot be expected to withstand activity for longer time periods in a swimming pool, let alone continue to function at 30 meters under water. This is because the test is conducted only once using static pressure on some of the newly manufactured watches. The test for qualifying a diving watch for repeated usage in a given depth includes safety margins to take factors in account like aging of the seals, rapidly changing water pressure and temperature, as well as dynamic mechanical stresses encountered by a watch. Also every diving watch has to be fully tested for water resistance.
Water resistance rating
Water Resistant or 30 m Suitable for everyday use. Splash/rain resistant. NOT suitable for swimming, snorkelling, water related work and fishing. NOT suitable for diving.
Water Resistant 50 m Suitable for swimming, white water rafting, no snorkelling.
NOT suitable for diving.
Water Resistant 100 m Suitable for recreational surfing, swimming, snorkelling, sailing and water sports. NOT suitable for diving.
Water Resistant 200 m Suitable for professional marine activity and serious surface water sports. NOT suitable for diving. Diver’s 100 m Minimum ISO standard (ISO 6425) for scuba diving at depths NOT suitable for saturation diving.
Diver’s 200 m or 300 m Suitable for scuba diving at depths NOT suitable for saturation diving. Typical ratings for contemporary diver’s watches.
Diver’s 300+ m for mixed-gas diving Suitable for saturation diving (helium enriched environment).
Why is a water pressure test recommended and what does it consist of?
If you get your watch wet from showering, swimming or diving, and do not want it to leak after battery replacement, we strongly recommended a new gasket and water pressure test for all 50 meter and above water-resistant watches.
Failure to change gaskets / use special lubricant and improper placement of the gasket in the watch will cause the watch to leak when exposed to water. Failure to properly seal the back plate by stripping any of the screw threads or, by something as simple as not tightening the back plate sufficiently will cause leakage and in most cases irreparable water damage.
When your watch stops keeping correct time, there is something obviously wrong.
First, ensure that your watch is NOT a automatic watch, since an automatic watch never needs a battery. Before throwing it away, try to change the battery. Most of the time, when a battery starts going bad, it causes the time to run slow. After that, the watch stops running altogether.